Carbon dating and turin shroud
I am an Australian evangelical Christian in my 70s. I am persuaded by the evidence that the Shroud of Turin is the burial sheet of Jesus Christ and bears His crucified and resurrected image. As can be seen, this mosaic depicts a Shroud-like, long-haired, fork-bearded, front-facing likeness of Christ. It has 14 out of 15 Vignon markings (see above), including a triangle between the nose and the eyebrows, concave cheeks, asymmetrical and pronounced cheekbones, each found on the Shroud, and a double tuft of hair where the reversed `3' bloodstain is on the Shroud. Wilson sampled depictions of Christ's face from the sixth, eighth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries and found between eight and fourteen of these Vignon markings features on them, an average of 80 percent incidence! A., 1954, "Self-Portrait of Christ: The Holy Shroud of Turin," Holy Shroud Guild: Esopus NY, Third printing, 1961, p.60. Wilson, I., 1979, "The Shroud of Turin: The Burial Cloth of Jesus Christ? E., 1963, "The Shroud," Random House: New York NY, p.157. Shroud Scope: Durante 2002 Face Only Horizontal (cropped and rotated right 90°). [D]As Wilson pointed out of the 8th-century Christ Pantocrator in the catacomb of Pontianus, Rome (see above) that:"Just as the viewing of a single footprint on fresh sand provided for Robinson Crusoe the conclusive evidence that there was another human being (later revealed as Man Friday) on his island, so the presence of this topless square on an indisputably seventh/eighth-century fresco virtually demands that the Shroud must have been around, somewhere, in some form at this early date"is "this topless square on an ... W., 1986, "Science, History, and the Shroud of Turin," Vantage Press: New York NY, p.76. ," , Image Books: New York NY, Revised, p.103. the 11th century Pantocrator in the dome of the church of Daphni, Greece [see above]) and even 14 (e.g. the 12th century Cefalu apse mosaic (see below) and the 11th[Above: (enlarge): Christ Pantocrator, Cefalu Cathedral, Sicily.
No one work featured every peculiarity, but of the 15 Vignon markings, some have 13 (e.g. Compare the above sketch showing the 15 Vignon markings with this photograph of the Shroud face, which is what artists looking at the Image of Edessa/Shroud directly would have seen.]Vignon identified 20 such oddities (reduced by Ian Wilson to a more certain 15 - see below), most of which artistically made no sense, including imperfections in the Shroud's weave, but were repeated slavishly by Byzantine artists from the 5th to the 12th century. Confirmation that the artists were copying the Shroud is evident in that they were trying to make sense of a negative image, for example open staring eyes which were actually closed in death, of which they could have had no concept, the camera using negative film not having been invented until the 19th century. Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.[Index] [Previous: "VT-100 terminal to a DEC mini-computer, Timothy Linick and Karl Koch" #9] [Next: "12th-11th centuries: Shroud's 1260-1390 radiocarbon date is against the preponderance of the evidence (3)" #11]Continuing with tracing the steps in the development of my radiocarbon dating of the Shroud hacker theory in my early 2014 posts (last three): "Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker? Christopher Ramsey" and now "Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker? Harry Gove (1922-2009), pointed out that the improbability of the Shroud being first century, yet its radiocarbon date was "between 12," is "about one in a thousand trillion"), I will document how courts decide, on the basis of high improbability alone, that a scientific fraud must have occurred. : Revised #1," "Were the radiocarbon dating laboratories duped by a computer hacker? : Revised #2 (Vignon markings)".[Above (enlarge) The Vignon markings: "The Vignon markings-how Byzantine artists created a living likeness from the Shroud image. And then, having proved beyond any reasonable doubt that there must have been fraud in carbon-dating the 1st century (or earlier) linen of the Shroud to 1325 ±65, I will re-present the evidence for: 1) the fraud having been perpetrated by computer hacking; and 2) I will tentatively identify the hackers as Timothy W.